*Datapedia*

In our technological dictionary, we offer a glossary of essential terms in the world of IoT, Big Data, Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence.

A

An evaluation metric that considers all possible classification thresholds. The ROC curve is the plot between sensitivity and (1- specificity). (1- specificity) is also known as the False Positive rate and sensitivity is also known as True Positive rate. The Area Under the ROC (Receiver operating characteristic) curve is the probability that a classifier will be more confident that a randomly chosen positive example is actually positive than that a randomly chosen negative example is positive.

The fraction of predictions that a classification model got right. In multi-class classification, accuracy is defined as follows:

Accuracy=Correct Predictions/Total Number Of Examples

In binary classification, accuracy has the following definition:

Accuracy= (True Positives +True Negatives)/Total Number Of Examples

An activation function is a function that transmits the information generated by the linear combination of the weighted inputs, i.e. the way information is transmitted through the output connections. Since we want the network to be able to solve increasingly complex problems, the activation functions will generally make the models non-linear. The best known are the step function, the sigmoidal function, the ReLu function, the hyperbolic tangent function or the radial base function (Gaussian, multicuadratic, inverse multicuadratic...).

A series of repeatable steps for carrying out a certain type of task with data. As with data structures, people studying computer science learn about different algorithms and their suitability for various tasks.

Analyst firms are key in our sector. They are experts in different technological matters and are opinion makers. They have great influence on investment banks, act as regulators and as suppliers of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Many of these organizations generate their own studies where they position the Telco in different aspects and, therefore, they get to intervene in the purchase decisions of the clients in the business segment. They act as a quality meter for companies.

Today we live in a hyperconnected world. More and more devices around us are sensorized and provide valuable data for users or companies. This data alone has no added value. The value comes when you cross-reference it, analyze it to improve production, save costs and increase efficiency through altering behavioral patterns. Data analytics are essential to the digital transformation of a company.

When artificial intelligence and IoT, Big Data technologies join forces, so that "things are able to learn, share information with each other and make decisions in an almost unattended way" in order to help organizations make decisions that improve people's lives.

In AI’s early days in the 1960s, researchers sought general principles of intelligence to implement, often using symbolic logic to automate reasoning. As the cost of computing resources dropped, the focus moved more toward statistical analysis of large amounts of data to drive decision making that gives the appearance of intelligence.

Any corporate resource that is necessary for the correct provision of information services. It is any information or system related to its treatment and which adds value to the organization. It can be either business processes, data, applications, IT systems, personnel, information supports, networks, auxiliary equipment, or installations. It is susceptible to deliberate or accidental attack with consequences for the organization.

An autonomous vehicle is an intelligent car driving experience that provides real-time information on vehicle operation and use, so customers can make more efficient decisions. It is integrated into the daily life of the user who remains connected while driving and allows him/her to access the information through a mobile application where the data collected by the device within the car is visible.

Ownership that must comply with the information contained in an information system by which, such information is available for reading or modification whenever a user with the appropriate permissions requires it.

B

Named after the eighteenth-century English statistician and Presbyterian minister Thomas Bayes, Bayes’ Theorem is used to calculate conditional probability. Conditional probability is the probability of an event ‘B’ occurring given that a related event ‘A’ has already occurred (P (B|A)).

Bayesian statistics is a mathematical procedure that applies probabilities to statistical problems. It provides people the tools to update their beliefs on the evidence of new data. It is based on the use of Bayesian probabilities to summarize evidence.

An intercept or offset from an origin. Bias (also known as the bias term) is referred to as b or w0 in machine learning models. For example, bias is the b in the following formula:

y′=b+w1x1+w2x2+…wnxn

In machine learning, “bias is a learner’s tendency to consistently learn the same wrong thing. Variance is the tendency to learn random things irrespective of the real signal.... It’s easy to avoid overfitting (variance) by falling into the opposite error of underfitting (bias).

In general, it refers to the ability to work with collections of data that had been impractical before because of their volume, velocity, and variety (“the three Vs, or the four Vs if we include veracity”). A key driver of this new ability has been easier distribution of storage and processing across networks of inexpensive commodity hardware using technology such as Hadoop instead of requiring larger, more powerful individual computers. But it’s not the amount of data that’s important, it’s how organizations use this large amount of data to generate insights. Companies use various tools, techniques and resources to make sense of this data to derive effective business strategies.

Binary variables are those variables, which can have only two unique values. For example, a variable “Smoking Habit” can contain only two values like “Yes” and “No”.

This is a Python library that extends the capacities of Numpy and Pandas to distributed data and streamed data. One can use it to access data from a wide number of sources such as Bcolz, MongoDB, SQLAlchemy, Apache Spark, PyTables, etc.

Blockchain is a set of technologies that allow the transfer of a value or asset from one place to another, without the intervention of third parties. In this model, authenticity is not verified by a third party but by a network of nodes (computers connected to the network). Therefore, asset transfers are made through consensus and by storing the information in a transparent manner.

One can generate attractive, interactive, 3D graphics, and web applications with this Python library. It is particularly useful for applications with “live” data (in streaming).

Bot, chatbot, talkbot, chatterbot, conversational assistant, virtual assistant etc are just different ways to name computer programs that communicate with us as if they were human. In this way, bots can do many tasks, some good, such as buying tickets for concerts, unlocking a user's account, or offering options to reserve a holiday home on specific dates; and some bad, such as carrying out cyber-attacks, or causing a financial catastrophe by conducting high-speed stock trading.

The bots (diminutive of "robot") can be designed in any programming language and function as a client, as a server, as a mobile agent, etc. When they specialize in a specific function they are usually called "Expert Systems".

Business analytics is mainly used to show the practical methodology than an organization uses to extract insights from their data. The methodology focuses on statistical analysis of the data.

Business intelligence refers to a set of strategies, applications, data and technologies used by an organization for data collection, analysis and generating insights in order to derive strategic business opportunity.

C

This low-level programming language focuses on software such as the components of an operating system or network protocols. It is frequently used in integrated systems and infrastructures that work as sensors. Although it can be a complicated language for beginners, it has a huge potential. It has very useful Machine Learning libraries such as LibSVM, Shark y MLPack.

Categorical variables (or nominal variables) are those variables with discrete qualitative values. For example, names of cities and countries are categorical.

A chatbot is a bot (see bot) or virtual assistant that uses a chat as an interface to communicate with humans.

Chi-square is “ a statistical method used to test whether the classification of data can be ascribed to chance or to some underlying law” ( Wordpanda). The chi-square test “ is an analysis technique used to estimate whether two variables in a cross tabulation are correlated”.

The deployment of millions of hyperconnected, heterogeneous and diverse scale devices translates into a clear security challenge. Cybersecurity is responsible for defending all these interconnections between devices to prevent malicious cyber-attacks that may illegally collect information and/or personal data.

This is a supervised learning method where the output variable is a category, such as “Male” or “Female” or “Yes” and “No”. Deciding whether an email message is spam or not classifies it between two categories and analysis of data about movies might lead to classification of them among several genres. Examples of classification algorithms are Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, K-NN, SVM etc.

The Cloud provides hosted services over the Internet that allows companies or individuals to consume computing resources as a utility anywhere, instead of having to build and maintain computing infrastructure in your home or offices. Having your documents in the cloud allows you to access them from any place, device and time and to be able to do without the physical device (for example a computer).

Clustering is an unsupervised learning method used to discover the inherent groupings in the data. For example, grouping customers based on their purchasing behavior that is further used to segment the customers. Afterwards, the companies can use the appropriate marketing tactics to generate more profits. Example of clustering algorithms: K-Means, hierarchical clustering, etc.

A number or algebraic symbol prefixed as a multiplier to a variable or unknown quantity. When graphing an equation such as y = 3x + 4, the coefficient of x determines the line's slope. Discussions of statistics often mention specific coefficients for specific tasks such as the correlation coefficient, Cramer’s coefficient, and the Gini coefficient.

Cognitive Intelligence is an important part of Artificial Intelligence, that mainly covers the technologies and tools that allow our apps, websites and bots to see, hear, speak, understand and interpret the users 'needs using natural language. In summary, it is the AI application that allows machines to understand the language of its users so that they don´t have to understand the language of the machines.

Also, natural language processing, NLP. A branch of computer science for analyzing texts of spoken languages (for example, English or Mandarin) to convert it to structured data that you can use to drive program logic. Early efforts focused on translating one language to another or accepting complete sentences as queries to databases; modern efforts often analyze documents and other data (for example, tweets) to extract potentially valuable information.

A range specified around an estimate to indicate margin of error, combined with a probability that a value will fall in that range. The field of statistics offers specific mathematical formulas to calculate confidence intervals.

Guaranteeing that information is only accessible by authorized users. Ownership that must comply with the information contained in an information system by which, such information is accessible for consultation by authorized users.

A confusion matrix is a table that is often used to describe the performance of a classification model. It is a N * N matrix, where N is the number of classes. We form the confusion matrix from the prediction of model classes Vs actual classes. The 2nd quadrant is called type II error or False Negatives, whereas 3rd quadrant is called type I error or False positives.

A variable whose value can be any of an infinite number of values, typically within a particular range. For example, if you can express age or size with a decimal number, then they are continuous variables. In a graph, the value of a continuous variable is usually expressed as a line plotted by a function. Compare discrete variable.

They are deep learning models that can automatically learn hierarchical representations of characteristics. This means that the characteristics calculated by the first layer are general and can be reused in different problems, while the characteristics calculated by the last layer are specific and depend on the data set and task chosen.

“The degree of relative correspondence between two sets of data.” If sales go up when the advertising budget goes up, they correlate.

The correlation coefficient is a measure of how closely the two data sets correlate. A correlation coefficient of 1 is a perfect correlation, 0.9 is a strong correlation, and 0.2 is a weak correlation. A coefficient of 0 would show no correlation. This value can also be negative, as when the incidence of a disease goes down when vaccinations go up. A correlation coefficient of -1 is a perfect negative correlation. Always remember, though,
that correlation does not imply causation.

The correlation matrix shows Pearson's correlation values, which measure the degree of linear relationship between two variables. Correlation values are usually between -1 and +1. In practice, however, the elements generally have positive correlations. If the two elements tend to increase or decrease at the same time, the correlation value is positive. If one increases as the other decreases or vice versa, the correlation is negative.

In general, variables with correlation values greater than 0.7 are considered to be highly correlated, although the value may depend on each individual case.

“A measure of the relationship between two variables whose values are observed at the same time; specifically, the average value of the two variables diminished by the product of their average values.” “Whereas variance measures how a single variable deviates from its mean, covariance measures how two variables vary in tandem from their means.”

When using data with an algorithm, “the name given to a set of techniques that divide up data into training sets and test sets. The training set is given to the algorithm, along with the correct answers and it becomes the set used to make predictions. The algorithm is then asked to make predictions for each item in the test set. The answers it gives are compared to the correct answers, and an overall score for how well the algorithm did is calculated.”

The user experience is the set of factors and actions that are carried out when the user interacts with a product or environment. The perception that the person gains in each case can be both positive and negative and will influence the purchase process that may or may not occur. This perception can come from many different factors such as design, emotions, feelings, brand experience, product reliability, etc.

D

Responsible for analysing statistical techniques (among others)and the historical data of the organization to make better informed future decisions (from how to avoid losing customers, to defining pricing strategies). Their function is to analyse historical data to detect patterns of behaviour and/or trends. (Descriptive and/or predictive analysis). For this role, knowledge about statistics, together with critical thinking skills, are fundamental. Communication skills are also of great importance. In short, its function is "Understanding what has happened in the past to make better decisions in the future".

The Organization that collects the data (for RGDP purposes).

A specialist in the management of data. “Data engineers are the ones that take the messy data... and build the infrastructure for real, tangible analysis. They run ETL software, marry data sets, enrich and clean all that data that companies have been storing for years.”

One in charge of defining and organizing the process of collection, storage, and access to data, guaranteeing at all times its security and confidentiality. Their function is to define and verify compliance with policies and standards. Manage the life cycle of the data and make sure that they are guarded in a safe and organized manner, and that only authorized persons can access them. For this role it is necessary to combine a functional knowledge of how the databases and other associated technologies work, with a comprehensive understanding of the regulations of each industry (financial, pharmaceutical, telecommunication, etc.) In short, its function is "Define and ensure the compliance of rules that define the flow of data". Once we have a system in which the data is well organized, accessible and securely guarded, it is in our interests to take advantage of it, extracting from it those valuable "Insights" or keys about patterns of behaviour that, applied to our processes, make them more efficient and innovative day by day. This is the moment when two new roles come into play. See GDPR.

A set of policies and good practices that enable processes, which aim to promote data as an asset within an organization, to improve decision making.

Channel of corporate social responsibility, solidarity and ethics, where multidisciplinary teams work on data and the different Data Governance disciplines. These tables can be virtual, with workflows and automatic controls, or face-to-face. Multidisciplinary participation where work is done on the data with the technical means available under any situation.

The concept "data insight" means the knowledge or deep understanding of the data in a way that can guide correct and productive business actions. "Data-driven" companies are those that make decisions based on data, in particular, on data insights (data-based decisions). LUCA solutions help companies become Data Driven companies.

Often a third party responsible for collecting data on behalf of the controller. See GDPR.

Data science is a combination of data analysis, algorithmic development statistics and software engineering in order to solve analytical problems. Data science work often requires knowledge of both. The main goal is a use of data to generate business value.

One who is responsible for performing a prescriptive analysis of the business data history, so that you can not only anticipate what will happen in the future and when, but also give a reason why. In this way you can establish what decisions will have to be made to take advantage of a future business opportunity or mitigate a possible risk, showing the implication of each option as a result. Their functions are to build and apply Machine Learning models capable of continuing to learn and improving their predictive capacity as the volume of data collected increases. For this role, advanced knowledge of mathematics in general (and of statistics in particular), knowledge of Machine Learning, knowledge of programming in SQL, Phyton, R or Scala is necessary. On occasion, the Data Analyst is considered a Data Scientist "in training". Therefore, the border between the tasks and functions of both roles is sometimes not so clear. In short, its function is "Modelling the future".

The individual whose data is being used (with effects of GDPR)

Generally, the use of computers to analyze large data sets to look for patterns, allowing people make business decisions. Data mining is a study of extracting useful information from structured/unstructured data. Data Mining is used for Market Analysis, determining customer purchase pattern, financial planning, fraud detection, etc.

Also, data munging. The conversion of data, often using scripting languages, to make it easier to work with. This is a very time-consuming task.

Responsible for the design (physical and logical), management and administration of the databases. Its function is to guarantee Security, optimization, monitoring, problem solving, and analysis / forecasting present and future capabilities. It is a very technical role for which deep knowledge of SQL language and also, increasingly, of non-SQL databases are necessary. Likewise, management skills may be necessary to design policies and procedures for the use, management, maintenance and security of databases. In short, its function is to make sure that "the machine works".

A decision tree is a type of supervised learning algorithm (having a pre-defined target variable) that is mostly used in classification problems. It works for both categorical and continuous input & output variables. In this technique, we split the population (or sample) into two or more homogeneous sets (or sub-populations) based on most significant splitter/differentiator in input variables.

Typically, a multi-level algorithm that gradually identifies things at higher levels of abstraction. For example, the first level may identify certain lines, then the next level identifies combinations of lines as shapes, and then the next level identifies combinations of shapes as specific objects. As you might guess from this example, deep learning is popular for image classification. Deep Learning is associated with a machine-learning algorithm (Artificial Neural Network, ANN) which uses the concept of the human brain to facilitate the modeling of arbitrary functions. ANN requires a vast amount of data and this algorithm is highly flexible when it comes to modelling multiple outputs simultaneously.

It is a library dedicated to Deep learning, written for Java and Scala. Provides an environment for developers to train and develop AI models.

The value of a dependent value “depends” on the value of the independent variable. If you're measuring the effect of different sizes of an advertising budget on total sales, then the advertising budget figure is the independent variable and total sales is the dependent variable.

This consists in the analysis of historical data and data that is collected in real time in order to generate Insights about how business strategies have been working in the past, for example, marketing campaigns.

One is responsible for directing, planning and controlling the digital transformation of any brand. For this reason, he is the most responsible in the areas of Data Governance, Information Management and Security.

Their function is to establish the strategy that guarantees the digital growth of the company in a sustainable way, able to adapt fluidly to the continuous changes in the digital landscape. It should also encourage the internal and external relations of the organization, attract the best talent, lead teams and solve with diplomacy the potential tensions that may arise between the different departments within company.

For this role it is very important to have a lot of experience in the digital world, strategic vision, communication skills for teamwork and creativity. The CDO must be innovative, sometimes even disruptive, and have decision-making power and resources. For this reason, they are usually under orders from the CEO.

The CDO can have some "overlaps" with the figure of the CIO ("Chief Information Officer"), but it is a role that, in regards to technological innovation, adds a clear marketing component aimed at exploiting "Digital Assets”.

Digital transformation is the reinvention of a company by implementing digital capabilities to its processes, products and assets to be more efficient, provide a better user experience and save costs.

Also, dimensionality reduction. “We can use a technique called principal component analysis to extract one or more dimensions that capture as much of the variation in the data as possible. For this purpose, linear algebra is involved; “broadly speaking, linear algebra is about translating something residing in an m-dimensional space into a corresponding shape in an n-dimensional space.”

A variable whose potential values must be one of a specific number of values. If someone rates a movie with between one and five stars, with no partial stars allowed, the rating is a discrete variable. In a graph, the distribution of values for a discrete variable is usually expressed as a histogram.

A Drone is a remotely operated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Nowadays it has different functions that bring great value to society, for example: it helps to reduce accidents on roads, detect a fire in the open field and make irrigation more efficient in fields.

E

It is a new computing paradigm that focuses on bringing data processing and storage closer to the devices that generate it, eliminating dependence on servers in the cloud or in data centres located thousands of miles away.

Responsible for creating the structure to collect and access the data. Defines how the data moves Its main function is the design of the data usage environment. How they are stored, how they are accessed and how they are shared / used by different departments, systems or applications, in line with the business strategy. It is a strategic role, for which a vision of the complete life cycle is required. Therefore, you should consider aspects of data modeling, database design, SQL development, and software project management. It is also important to know and understand how traditional and emerging technologies can contribute to the achievement of business objectives. In short, its function is to ensure that "define the global vision."

he purpose of evaluation metric is to measure the quality of the statistical / machine learning model.

Expert system It is a system that uses human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that would normally be solved by expert humans. Well-designed systems mimic the reasoning process that experts use to solve specific problems. These systems can work better than any human expert making decisions individually in certain domains and can be used by non-expert humans to improve their problem-solving skills.

EDA or exploratory data analysis is a phase used for data science pipeline in which the focus is to understand insights of the data through visualization or by statistical analysis.

F

The machine learning expression for a piece of measurable information about something. If you store the age, annual income, and weight of a set of people, you are storing three features about them. In other areas of the IT world, people may use the terms property, attribute, or field instead of “feature.”

Feature Selection is a process of choosing those features that are required to explain the predictive power of a statistical model, and dropping out irrelevant features. This can be done by either filtering out less useful features or by combining features to make a new one.

5G is one of the new connectivities being implemented in different countries whose main function is to support information upload speeds far superior to any other technology created so far. This means that for the services that benefit from this technology, the delivery of information will be even faster than the current one.

G

“General Architecture for Text Engineering,” is an open source, Java-based framework for natural language processing tasks. The framework lets you pipeline other tools designed to be plugged into it. The project is based at the UK’s University of Sheffield.

On May 25, 2018, the new General Regulation of Data Protection (GDPR) came into force. The main objective of this new regulation is to govern the collection, use and exchange of personal data. The amount of data we create every day is growing at an exponential rate, and as the regulation says, "the processing of personal data must be designed to serve humanity.

GitHub is a non-profit company that offers a hosting service for repositories stored in the cloud. It was purchased by Microsoft in 2018. GitHub is based on collaboration between users by encouraging several developers to experiment with open source and share their different projects and ideas.

Gradient boosting o Potenciación del gradiente, es una técnica de aprendizaje automático utilizado para el análisis de la regresión y para problemas de clasificación estadística, el cual produce un modelo predictivo en forma de un conjunto de modelos de predicción débil, normalmente, árboles de decisión. Construye el modelo de forma iterativa y lo generaliza permitiendo la optimización de una función pérdida diferenciable arbitraria. (Wikipedia)

The graphics processing unit (GPU) is the hardware component that ensures that content is displayed correctly on the computer screen or monitor. It manages everything from the user interface to applications and web pages and, of course, games.

The use of mass parallel computing with GPUs has been key to the development of Deep Learning.

H

Hadoop is an open-source project from the Apache Foundation, introduced in 2006 and developed in Java. It has to objective of offering a working environment that is appropriate for the demands of Big Data (the 4 V’s). As such, Hadoop is designed to work with large
Volumes of data, both structured and unstructured (
Variety), and to process them in a secure and efficient way (
Veracity and Velocity).

To achieve this, it distributes both the storage and processing of information between various computers working together in “
clusters”. These clusters have one or more
master nodes charged with managing the distributed files where the information is stored in different blocks, as well as coordinating and executing the different tasks among the cluster’s members. As such, it is a highly scalable system that also offers software “redundancy”.

A practical and non-optimal solution to a problem, which is sufficient for making progress or for learning from.

A synthetic layer in a neural network between the input layer (the features) and the output layer (the prediction). A neural network contains one or more hidden layers.

A graphical representation of the distribution of a set of numeric data, usually a vertical bar graph.

This refers to examples intentionally not used ("held out") during training. The validation data set and test data set are examples of holdout data. Holdout data helps evaluate your model's ability to generalize data other than the data it was trained on. The loss on the holdout set provides a better estimate of the loss on an unseen data set than does the loss on the training set.

A boundary that separates a space into two subspaces. For example, a line is a hyperplane in two dimensions and a plane is a hyperplane in three dimensions. More typically, in machine learning, a hyperplane is the boundary separating a high-dimensional space. Kernel Support Vector Machines use hyperplanes to separate positive classes from negative classes, often in a very high-dimensional space.

I

Imputation is a technique used for handling missing values in the data. This is done either by statistical metrics like mean/mode imputation or by machine learning techniques like kNN imputation.

Also known as the 4th Industrial Revolution, it refers to the transformation of a company into an intelligent organization in order to achieve the optimization of its resources and reduction of costs. As a result of this digital transformation, the business becomes more efficient and achieves greater competence.

In inferential statistics, we try to hypothesize about the population by only looking at a sample of it. For example, before releasing a drug in the market, internal tests are done to check if the drug is viable for release. But here we cannot check with the whole population for viability of the drug, so we do it on a sample which best represents the population.

Innovation, in most cases, is a transformation through which changes are made to introduce improvements or new functionalities to existing solutions. In other cases, it is a process of creating new solutions from scratch. In any case, these developments are created thanks to human ingenuity to improve our quality of life as a species and are closely connected to science and technology.

Ownership that must comply with the information contained in an information system by which, such information cannot be modified without leaving a trace that such modification has taken place, either in the physical supports in which it is stored or within its transfer through communication networks.

The Internet of Things is based on the connectivity of millions of objects to each other that allow us to make the most of every aspect of our lives. These are physical objects with integrated sensors in order to connect and exchange data with other devices and automate tasks so that you can spend your time on what you really like.

The degree to which a model's predictions can be readily explained. Deep models are often uninterpretable; that is, a deep model's different layers can be hard to decipher.

IoMT, or Internet of Medical Things, is the name given to the sensorization of medical devices in order to collect data and analyze it to offer a better service to patients and health care professionals.

This translates into great advantages for workers and patients alike:

- Saving economic resources by digitizing medical examinations through gadgets in order to reduce the cost of hospital bills

- Improving the quality of life of patients by managing and collecting data in order to detect and prevent diseases in a more personalized way

- Process automation to optimize health resources and personnel in the best possible way

- Improving the user experience in the health centre by optimising space through people counting to reduce waiting times

An IoT sensor is a device capable of detecting, measuring or indicating changes in a physical space/object, transforms them into an electrical signal and uploads information which can be read on the connected platform. These sensors can measure a multitude of variables (location, temperature, humidity, pressure, speed...) On their own they would not be useful, so all the data collected is placed on a platform where, through the Big Data, we can analyze it and identify behaviour patterns in order to define the values and get the most out of the device.

J

This is one of the most commonly used programming languages for Machine Learning, due to its consistency, clarity and flexibility. It is an open-source language that is compatible with any platform and practically any application. It features a large number of libraries, some of which are focused on the world of Machine Learning such as Spark+MLlib, Mahout y Deeplearning4j.

K

Kurtosis is a descriptor of the shape of a probability distribution and is explained in terms of the central peak. Higher values of kurtosis indicate a higher, sharper peak; lower values indicate a lower, less distinct peak.

It is a type of unsupervised algorithm which solves the clustering problem. It is a procedure which follows a simple and easy way to classify a given data set through a certain number of clusters (assume k clusters). Data points inside a cluster are homogeneous and heterogeneous to peer groups.

K nearest neighbors is a simple algorithm that stores all available cases and classifies new cases by a majority vote of its k neighbors. The case being assigned to the class is most common amongst its K nearest neighbors measured by a distance function.

L

An acronym of List Procesor, this language was created by John McCarthy, now seen by many as the father of Artificial Intelligence. His idea was to optimize the functioning and use of the resources that the computers of the era had available to them. The new language, based in part on the already existing Fortran, used some innovative technique such as data “trees” (a hierarchical data structure), or the use of "symbolic computation" (also known as "computer algebra"), from which symbolic programming would later been born. Lisp did not take long in becoming the favourite language of the world of Artificial Intelligence.

This C++ library can easily be used to work with Support Vector Machines (SVMs). It is used to solve classification and regression problems.

In data mining, Lift compares the frequency of an observed pattern with how often you’d expect to see that pattern just by chance. If the lift is near 1, then there’s a good chance that the pattern you observed is occurring just by chance. The larger the lift, the more likely that the pattern is ‘real’.

A technique to look for a linear relationship (that is, one where the relationship between two varying amounts, such as price and sales, can be expressed with an equation that you can represent as a straight line on a graph) by starting with a set of data points that don't necessarily line up nicely. This is done by computing the “ least squares” line: the one that has, on an x-y graph, the smallest possible sum of squared distances to the actual data point y values. Statistical software packages and even typical spreadsheet packages offer automated ways to calculate this.

A branch of mathematics dealing with vector spaces and operations within them such as addition and multiplication. “Linear algebra is designed to represent systems of linear equations. Linear equations are designed to represent linear relationships, where one entity is written to be a sum of multiples of other entities. In the shorthand of linear algebra, a linear relationship is represented as a linear operator—a matrix.”

The logarithm of a number is the exponent to which another fixed number, the base, must be raised to produce that number. b y = x {\displaystyle b^{y}=x} Working with the log of one or more of a model's variables, instead of their original values, can make it easier to model relationships with linear functions instead of non-linear ones. Linear functions are typically easier to use in data analysis.

A model similar to linear regression but where the potential results are a specific set of categories instead of being continuous.

M

Machine to Machine (M2M) is the connection or exchange of information, in data format, that is created between two connected machines. It is, in a way, the connectivity on which the Internet of Things (IoT) is based. Nowadays, the term M2M has become obsolete, since it has evolved into what we call IoT which, besides machines, also connects people.

A commercial computer language and environment popular for visualization and algorithm development.

Machine Learning refers to the techniques involved in dealing with vast data in the most intelligent fashion (by developing algorithms) to derive actionable insights. In these techniques, we expect the algorithms to learn by themselves without being explicitly programmed.

This Java library is very similar to Python’s NumPy. It focuses on mathematical, algebraic and statistical expressions.

This Python library is used to create a variety of graphics: from histograms to line graphs and heat maps. It also allows you to use LaTeX commands to add mathematical expressions to a graph.

Data about data that allows to add context to the information. It describes characteristics of data that help its identification, discovery, assessment, and management. There are three types of metadata: technical, organizational, and business.

This C++ library aims to quickly start up Machine Learning algorithms. It integrates the algorithms into solutions at a larger scale by using simple lines of code.

In the 80s, Hans Moravec, Rodney Brooks and Marvin Minsky. researchers in the field of artificial intelligence and robotics raised what is known as the Moravec paradox. This paradox reflects the inherent contradiction of the fact that activities involving a high level of reasoning, such as playing chess, or doing an intelligence test, require very little computational load, while other activities of low cognitive level, such as identifying a familiar face, require a huge amount of these resources. In the words of Moravec himself: "It's relatively easy to get a machine to show an adult's performance on an intelligence test. or playing the ladies; however, it is much more difficult or even impossible to reach the level of ability of a child of one year, when it comes to perception and mobility". It is clear that the lower price and exponential growth of available computing resources can make even those sensorimotor skills come to be realized by an AI in the future. However, here another paradox comes into play, previous to Moravec's, but very closely related to it: Polanyi's paradox.

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NB-IoT are the first standard 3GPP technologies designed ad hoc for IoT in the licensed bands. Both technologies are part of the LPWA (low power wide area) networks and have been designed to optimize the massive consumption of Low Data and low cost IoT uses. Thanks to this technology we can reduce the cost of the devices and extend the life of the batteries for years. In addition, it provides better coverage both indoors (complicated coverage sites: e.g. basements) and outdoors (long range).

“A collection of classification algorithms based on Bayes Theorem. It is not a single algorithm but a family of algorithms that all share a common principle, that every feature being classified is independent of the value of any other feature.

Natural Language Processing is the branch within the field of computer science, linguistics and artificial intelligence that is responsible for the study and development of techniques that enable computers to understand and process human language.

A model that, taking inspiration from the brain, is composed of layers (at least one of which is hidden) consisting of simple connected units or neurons followed by nonlinearities. Neural Networks are used in deep learning research to match images to features and much more. What makes Neural Networks special is their use of a hidden layer of weighted functions called neurons, with which you can effectively build a network that maps a lot of other functions. Without a hidden layer of functions, Neural Networks would be just a set of simple weighted functions.”

The new technologies are techniques that have not been used before but have emerged in recent years within the fields of computing and communication. They are small advances of humanity that help people evolve and make life easier for them. Tools such as the Internet, DVDs, desktop computers, and laptops were examples of this concept in their day. Today we understand concepts such as IoT, Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality etc as new technologies.

Traditional database systems, known as RDBMSS, are largely dependent on rows, columns, schemas, and tables, to retrieve and organize data stored in databases. To do this, they use a structured SQL query language. These systems have some problems working with Big Data such as non-scalability, lack of flexibility and performance problems.

NoSQL non-relational databases are much more flexible. They allow you to work with unstructured data, such as chat data, messaging, log data, user and session data, large data such as videos and images, as well as the Internet of things and device data. They are also designed to achieve high storage volume capacity, through distributed data storage, and information processing speed. Therefore, they are very scalable. They are also independent of the programming language.

NoSQL databases are open source, therefore its cost is affordable, but as a counterpart, it generates problems of lack of standardization and interoperability. Some NoSQL databases available on the market are Couchbase, Amazon Dynamo Db, MongoDB and MarkLogic etc.

Also, Gaussian distribution. A probability distribution which, when graphed, is a symmetrical bell curve with the mean value at the center. The standard deviation value affects the height and width of the graph. An important fact about this bell shaped curve is that you can model many natural, social and psychological phenomena. These phenomena may be affected by random variables, but the summary statistics you calculate from your samples, in fact do follow a normal distribution. The Gauss curve also makes math easy.

A portmanteau of Numerical + Python, NumPy is the main Python library for scientific computation. One of its most powerful traits is that it can work with arrays on "n" dimensions. It also offers basic linear algebra functions, the Fourier transform, advanced random number capabilities and tools that allow it to be integrated with other low-level languages such as Fortran, C and C++.

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“Extreme values that might be errors in measurement and recording, or might be accurate reports of rare events.”

A model of training data that, by taking too many of the data's quirks and outliers into account, is overly complicated and will not be as useful as it could be to find patterns in test data.

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A Python library for data manipulation popular with data scientists. See also Python.

The perceptron is the simplest neural network, which approximates a single neuron with n binary inputs. It computes a weighted sum of its inputs and ‘fires’ if that weighted sum is zero or greater

Perl is a scripting language rooted in pre-Linux UNIX systems. Perl has always been used for especially data cleanup and enhancement tasks in text processing.

Pivot tables summarize long lists of data, without requiring you to write a single formula or copy a single cell. However, the most notable feature of pivot tables is that you can arrange them dynamically. The process of rearranging your table is known as pivoting your data: you're turning the same information around to examine it from different angles.

Michael Polanyi was an Anglo-Hungarian scholar and philosopher who, in 1966, proposed in his book "The Tacit Dimension" that human knowledge is based, to a large extent, on rules and skills that have been taught to us by culture, tradition, evolution etc, and that, we are therefore not always fully aware of it. He defined what is called "tacit knowledge", and summed it up in this sentence: We know more than we can tell.

What he meant by this Polanyi, is that many of the tasks we perform are based on a tacit, intuitive knowledge, and that they are therefore very difficult to code or automate. Why? Because we ourselves do not know how to explain how we do it. For example, have you ever tried to explain to a child how to jump rope? At what point do you have to enter so as not to step on the rope or become entangled with it? It seems simple, right? Well, it´s not. Now imagine how you would explain it to a robot.

Precision is a metric for classifications models that answers the following question: Out of all the possible positive labels, how many did the model correctly identify?

It represents how near the actual value is to the one obtained from the model or measurement. It is also known as “True Positive Rate”.

Recall is described as the measured of how many of the positive predictions are correct.

Both precision and recall are therefore based on an understanding and measure of relevance. High precision means that an algorithm returned substantially more relevant results than irrelevant ones, while high recall means that an algorithm returned most of the relevant results

Consiste en el desarrollo de modelos estadísticos y de aprendizaje automático que permitan predecir comportamientos futuros, basándose en datos históricos.

It consists of the analysis of historical business data in order to predict future behaviors that help to better planning. To do this, predictive modeling techniques are used, among others. These techniques are based on statistical algorithms and machine learning.

It is a machine learning algorithm that aims to reduce the dimensionality of a set of observed variables to a set of variables without linear correlation, called main components. To do this, it calculates the direction with the greatest variance and defines it as the main component. It is used mainly in exploratory data analysis and to build predictive models.

The probability distribution of a discrete random variable is the set of all the possible values that this variable can have, together with its probabilities of occurrence. For discrete variables, the main probability distributions are the binomial, the Poisson and the hypergeometric (the latter for dependent events). For continuous variable, the distribution that is generated is normal or Gaussian.

Profiling is the process of using personal data to evaluate certain personal aspects to analyse and predict behaviour/performance/reliability, etc.

The pseudonymization process is an alternative to data anonymization. While anonymization involves the complete elimination of all identifiable information, pseudonymization aims to eliminate the link between a set of data and the identity of the individual. Pseudonymization examples are encryption and tokenization.

It is a programming language created in 1994 and is widely used in data science. For beginners, it is very easy to learn, but at the same time it is a very powerful language for advanced users, since it has specialized libraries for automatic learning and graphics generation.

Modules are Python's way of storing definitions (instructions or variables) in a file, so they can be used later in a script or in an interactive instance of the interpreter. Thus it is not necessary to redefine them each time. The main advantage of Python allowing to separate a program into modules is, obviously, that we can reuse them in other programs or modules. All you have to do is importing the modules you want to use in each situation. Python comes with a collection of standard modules that can be used as a basis for new program or examples to start learning with.

A library is nothing more than a set of modules (see modules). Python standard library is very wide and offers a great variety of modules that perform functions of all kinds, from modules written in C that offer access to system features such as file access (file I / O). In Python website, you can find "The Python Standard Library", a reference guide to all the modules in Python. Installers for Windows platforms usually include the complete standard library, including some additional components. However, Python installations using packages will require specific installers.

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An open-source programming language and environment for statistical computing and graph generation available for Linux, Windows, and Mac.

An algorithm used for regression or classification tasks that is based on a combination of predictive trees. "To classify a new object from an input vector, each of the trees in the forest is fed with that vector. Each tree offers a classification as a result, and we say "vote" for that result. The forest chooses the classification that has the most votes among all the trees in the forest. The term "random forest" is a trademark registered by its authors.

It is a supervised learning method where the output variable is a real and continuous value, such as "height" or "weight". Regression consists of fitting any data set to a given model. Within the regression algorithms we can find the linear, non-linear regression, by least squares, Lasso, etc.

Based on studies on how to encourage learning in humans and rats based on rewards and punishments. The algorithm learns by observing the world around it. Your input information is the feedback you get from the outside world in response to your actions. Therefore, the system learns based on trial-error.

Systems capacity to maintain or restore its basic functionality after a risk or event (even unknown) occurs.

A robot is an electromechanical system with its own independence to create movements or perform operations that can be used, at least, as subject of research. They are created through a technique called robotics, which is used to design and build them.

It is a scripting language created in 1996. It is widely used among data scientists, but it is not as popular as Python, since it offers more specialized libraries for the different tasks of Data Science.

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A commercial statistical software suite that includes a programming language.

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard and interactive language used to communicate to relational databases, that allows to specify different types of operations in them. The SQL is based on the use of algebra and relational calculations to query the databases in a simple way. Queries are made through a command language that allows you to select, insert, update, find out the location of the data, and more.

A variable is scalar (as opposed to vectorial), when it has a value of magnitude but no direction in space, such as volume or temperature.

A portmanteau of Scientific Python, SciPy is a Python library that is built upon the NumPy library of scientific computation. It is one of the most useful due to its large variety of high-level modules of science and engineering, such as the Discrete Fourier Transform, linear algebra, and optimization matrices.

This Python library is built upon NumPy, SciPy and matplotlib. It contains a large number of efficient tools for Machine Learning and statistical modeling such as classification algorithms, regression, clustering and dimensionality reduction.

This Python library is used to trawl the web. It a very useful environment when wanting to obtain a given data pattern. It can trawl various pages of a website, by using the URL of the homepage, in order to collect information.

Script programming languages can be executed directly without the need to compile them before in binary code, as is the case with languages such as Java and C. The syntax of scripting languages is much simpler than that of compiled languages, making it much easier the tasks of programming and execution. Some examples of this type of languages are Python, Perl, Rubi etc.

This Python library, built upon matplotlib, is used to create attractive graphics and statistic information in Python. Its objective is to give greater relevance to visualizations, within the tasks of exploring and interpreting data.

Self-supervised learning is a term that refers to a type of non-supervised learning framed within a supervised learning problem. It is a relatively recent learning technique where training data is labelled autonomously.

Semi-structured data does not have a defined schema. They do not fit into a table/row/column format but are organised by labels or "tags" that allow them to be grouped together and create hierarchies. They are also known as non-relational or NoSQL.

Son métricas estadísticas que se usan para medir el rendimiento de un clasificador binario.

La Sensibilidad (También llamada tasa de verdadero positivo, o probabilidad de detección en algunos campos) mide la proporción de casos positivos correctamente identificados por el algoritmo clasificador. Por ejemplo, el porcentaje de personas que padecen una enfermedad y que son correctamente detectadas. Su fórmula es:

Sensibilidad=Verdaderos Positivos/ (Verdaderos Positivos + Falsos Negativos)

La Especificidad (también llamada tasa de verdaderos negativos) mide la proporción de casos negativos correctamente identificados como tales por el algoritmo clasificador. Por ejemplo, se usa para indicar el número de personas sanas que han sido correctamente identificadas como tales por el algoritmo.

Especifidad=Verdaderos Negativos/ (Verdaderos Negativos + Falsos Positivos)

This C++ library offers linear and non-linear optimization methods. It is based on kernel methods, neural networks and other advanced machine learning techniques. It is compatible with the majority of operating systems (OS).

When the operating system is accessed from the command line we are using the console. In addition to script languages such as Perl and Python, it is common to use Linux-based tools such as grep, diff, splitt, comm, head and tail to perform data preparation and debugging tasks from the console.

A Smart City is a scenario in which technology is used to improve different infrastructures for citizens. It is a space with millions of devices and connected IoT solutions where the main challenge is how to manage the huge volume of data in real time and in a useful, efficient and integrated way.

The connected shop is also known by other names such as connected shop, IoT shop, future shop or smart shop. In short, a connected store is a traditional commercial store that has undergone a digital transformation and has adapted its spaces with new functionalities thanks to IoT devices in order to offer its customers a better user experience. Brands are striving to translate the advantages of online commerce to the physical points of sale to attract new customers, increase sales and increase brand loyalty.

This Java library works perfectly with Spark APIs and works with NumPy. Spark speeds up the MLlib functionality, which aims to carry out a scalable and easier learning process.

Time series data that also includes geographic identifiers such as latitude-longitude pairs.

Es la raíz cuadrada de la varianza y se usa habitualmente para indicar cuánto se aleja de la media una medida determinada. Por ejemplo, si una observación se aleja de la media más de tres veces la desviación estándar, podemos decir en la mayoría de las aplicaciones que nos encontramos ante un caso anómalo. Los paquetes de software estadístico calculan de forma automática la desviación estándar.

This Python module is used of statistical modeling. It allows users to explore data, makes statistical estimations and carry out statistical tests. It offers an extensive list of descriptive statistics as well as tests and graphical functions for different types of data and estimations.

It consists in dividing the population samples into homeogenic groups or strata and taking a random sample of each of them. Strata is also an O'Reilly conference on Big Data, Data Science and related technologies.

Structured data is the typical data from most relational databases (RDBMS). These databases are characterised by having a particular schema that defines what the tables look like in which the data is stored, what type of fields they have and how they relate to each other.

In supervised learning, the algorithms work with "tagged" data (labeled data), trying to find a function that, given the input variables, assign them the appropriate output tag. The algorithm is trained with a "historical" data and thus "learns" to assign the appropriate output label to a new value, that is, it predicts the output value. Supervised learning is often used in classification problems, such as identifying digits, diagnosing, or detecting identity fraud.

A support vector machine is a supervised machine learning algorithm that is used for both classification and regression tasks. They are based on the idea of finding the hyperplane that best divides the data set into two differentiated classes. Intuitively, the farther away from the hyperplane our values are, the more certain we are that they are correctly classified. However, sometimes it is not easy to find the hyperplane that best classifies the data and it is necessary to jump to a larger dimension (from the plane to 3 dimensions or even n dimensions). SVMs are used for tasks of text classification, spam detection, sentiment analysis, etc. They are also used for image recognition

This Python library is used for symbolic computation, including arithmetics, calculus, algebra, discrete mathematics and quantum physics. It can also format the results of these calculationsin LaTeX code.

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They are a variation of the normal distributions. They were discovered by William Gosset in 1908 and published under the pseudonym "Student". He needed a distribution that he could use when the sample size was small and the variance was unknown and had to be estimated from the data. The t distributions are used to take into account the added uncertainty that results from this estimate.

Tensors are mathematical objects that store numerical values and can have different dimensions. Thus, for example, a 1D tensor is a vector, a 2D matrix, a 3D cube, etc.

It is an opensource software library for numerical computation using data flow graphs. The nodes in the graph represent mathematical operations, while the edges represent the multidimensional data sets (tensors) communicated between them.

It is the technique by which we can convert long passages of text into passages of shorter texts containing only that information that is relevant. Thanks to this we can design and develop models that help us to condense and present the information, saving us reading time and maximizing the amount of information per word.

A time series is a sequence of measures spaced in time intervals not necessarily equal. Thus time series consist of a measure (for example, atmospheric pressure or price of an action) accompanied by a temporary seal.

This is a method widely used in artificial vision because it allows you to build accurate models saving a great deal of time. Instead of starting the learning process from scratch, you start using patterns or pre-trained models that you have learned by solving a different problem.

Concept on the basis of which the user is aware of the information stored, can give and revoke their explicit consent and be able to revoke it during the operation of the service and guarantee it has been removed once it finishes.

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The "Unstructured Information Management Architecture" was developed by IBM as an environment for analyzing unstructured data, especially natural language. OASIS UIMA is a specification that standardizes this environment and Apache UIMA is an open source implementation of this. This environment allows you to work with different tools designed to connect with it.

Unstructured data accounts for 80% of the volume of all data generated, and this percentage is growing steadily. This data may have an internal structure, but it does not follow any predefined schema or data model. It can be text or non-text data; it can be generated by a machine or a person; and can be stored in a NoSQL database or directly in a Datalake.

Unsupervised learning occurs when "labeled" data is not available for training. We only know the input data, but there is no output data that corresponds to a certain input. Therefore, we can only describe the structure of the data, and try to find some kind of organization that simplifies the analysis. Therefore, they have an exploratory character.

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The mathematical definition of a vector is "a value that has a magnitude and a direction, represented by an arrow whose length represents the magnitude and whose orientation in space represents the direction". However, data scientists use the term in this sense: "ordered set of real numbers denoting a distance on a coordinate axis. These numbers can represent characteristics of a person, movie, product or whatever we want to model. This mathematical representation of the variables allows working with software libraries that apply advanced mathematical operations to the data.

A vector space is a set of vectors, for example, a matrix.

Virtual reality is a computer system that generates simulations of real or fictitious spaces in which we can interact and explore as if we were there.

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Weka is a set of automatic learning algorithms to perform data analytics tasks. The algorithms can be applied directly to a data set or be called from your own Java code. Weka offers tools for data pre-processing, classification, regression, clustering, association and visualization rules. It is also appropriate for the development of new machine learning models. Weka is an open source software developed by the University of Waikato in New Zealand.

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